56 Cities, Counties, and States Will Raise Minimum Wage Rates on January 1—Many Reaching or Exceeding $15—With Another 26 Jurisdictions to Lift Pay Later in 2022
In 2022, a record number of states and localities will increase their minimum wages—10 years after fast-food workers first went on strike to demand $15 and a union. These record increases are the result of underpaid workers organizing, demanding, and winning higher wages. This movement has not only led to the adoption of higher state and local minimum wages but has helped seed new worker activism and mobilization across our economy.
Summary of Wage Increases in 2022
On January 1, 2022 (December 31, 2021 for workers in New York), the minimum wage will increase in 21 states and 35 cities and counties. In 33 of those jurisdictions, the wage floor will reach or exceed $15 per hour for some or all employers.
Later in 2022, four additional states and 22 local jurisdictions will also lift their wage floors—17 of them to $15 or more. By the end of 2022, 49 jurisdictions (two states and 47 cities and counties) will meet or exceed a $15 minimum wage for some or all employers.
In total, 81 jurisdictions—25 states and 56 municipalities—will raise their minimum wage floors before the end of 2022. (The City of West Hollywood, CA will increase wages twice in 2022 but is counted only once in the year’s grand total.) Below is a summary of what to expect:
- Minimum wages will increase in 21 states and 35 cities and counties on or around New Year’s Day, for a total of 56 jurisdictions (Table 1).
- In two states and 31 cities and counties, the minimum wage will reach or exceed $15 per hour for some or all employers—including the State of California and the City of Hayward, CA, which will have lower minimum wages for small employers; as well as the State of New York, which previously reached a $15 minimum wage for fast-food workers throughout the state in 2021, and for all workers in New York City in 2019, as part of a statewide wage order enacted in 2016.
- In eight states and 27 cities and counties, the minimum wage will increase due to cost-of-living adjustments.
- Later in 2022, four states and 22 cities and counties will follow with additional minimum wage increases, for a total of 26 jurisdictions (Table 2).
- Among them is the City of West Hollywood, CA, which will raise its wage floor twice—on January 1st and July 1st.
- In 17 cities and counties, the minimum wage will reach or exceed $15 per hour—including the District of Columbia and 11 California localities that have already reached or surpassed a $15 minimum wage and are expected to raise wages further to account for inflation; and four localities in Illinois, Maryland, and Minnesota, which will have lower minimum wages for certain employers (see footnote vi at the end of Table 2).
- In 17 cities and counties, the minimum wage will increase due to cost-of-living adjustments, including Chicago, IL and Montgomery County, MD, both of which reached a $15 minimum wage for large employers in 2021 and will adjust this rate in 2022 to account for inflation.
- 44 cities and counties will have surpassed a $15 minimum wage for some or all employers at some point in 2022. (See Table 3).
Context: Fight for $15 and COVID-19 pandemic have forced a reckoning in low-paying industries, with workers demanding and winning more
November 2022 will mark the 10-year anniversary of the Fight for $15. This worker-of-color-led movement has had a significant impact on wages, and has influenced policy debates and the public conversation about fair pay and workplace rights. In the first nine years since its founding, the Fight for $15 has resulted in $150 billion in higher pay for 26 million workers.
But the movement’s impact does not stop there. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced a reckoning in low-wage industries and throughout the economy. Low pay, a lack of job security, and poor working conditions are endemic in service and other frontline jobs, with disproportionate effects on Black women, Latinas, and Asian Americans of any gender.
The pandemic has exposed for the public the depth of the precarity experienced by underpaid workers. And workers—fed up with low pay, lack of respect, and facing workplace exposure to a deadly virus—have been emboldened to act collectively and individually to demand change. Some workers—in particular, those in the restaurant industry—have expressed their discontent by quitting in large numbers, perhaps permanently, citing low pay as one of the top reasons for leaving. Others have gone on strike, engaged in slowdowns or sick-ins, or taken other action.
Legacy of the Fight for $15
An increasing number of employers are responding to the mass resignations by offering higher starting wages—often $15 and above—in hopes of attracting and retaining workers. (For a sample list of employers that have raised wages to $15 or more during the pandemic, see Table 4 below. For a list of employers that have raised wages at any point since 2012, see Appendix Table I of the NELP report, Quantifying the Impact of the Fight for $15.) This suggests that, despite previous claims about the unaffordability of higher wages, many employers have always been able to pay more but chose not to do so.
The $15 figure being offered by employers today is not a mere coincidence, but is the wage floor demanded by fast-food and other underpaid workers leading the Fight for $15. These demands have directly led to $150 billion of additional pay for 26 million workers, half of whom are women, and many of whom are also workers of color (46 percent).
Although workers have made tremendous gains since 2012, there is still much to be done. Twenty states have refused to raise their wage floors above the federal rate for over a decade. Roughly half of those states are located in the U.S. South, where a majority of Black workers live, and where, not surprisingly, they experience higher levels of poverty and downward economic mobility.
The federal wage floor has been stuck at $7.25 per hour since 2009—the longest stretch since the adoption of a minimum wage in 1938. The federal tipped wage has been frozen at $2.13 for even longer, since 1991. Absent state action to raise the minimum wage, underpaid workers in states that are pegged to the federal minimum wage rates will have to continue to depend on Congress to see a raise in their hourly wages. The ongoing efforts to raise the federal wage floor are therefore critical; as are possible ballot initiatives in Nebraska, Idaho, and California, which will give voters a chance to approve $15 to $18 minimum wages during the 2022 midterm elections.
[i] Includes the New Mexico cities of Albuquerque and Las Cruces, where the standard minimum wage will match the state rate, but the tipped wage will increase as a percentage of the standard rate. It also includes West Hollywood, CA, which will raise its minimum wage twice in 2022 (on January 1st and on July 1st), and therefore is also listed in Table 2, below.
[ii] Includes California, which will have a lower minimum wage for small employers ($14.00); and New York, which previously reached a $15.00 minimum wage for all workers in New York City (December 2019) and for fast food workers throughout the state (July 2021), and will raise the wage floor to $15.00 for all workers in Long Island and Westchester County on December 31, 2021.
[iii] Includes Hayward, CA, which will have a lower minimum wage ($14.52) for small employers; and San Diego, CA, which adopted a $11.50 by 2017 minimum wage law, and will reach a $15.00 wage floor to account for inflation.
[iv] Includes West Hollywood, CA, which will raise its minimum wage twice in 2022 (on January 1st and on July 1st), and is therefore also listed in Table 1, above.
[v] Includes Chicago, IL, and Montgomery County, MD, which reached $15.00 for large employers in 2021 and will adjust this rate to account for inflation in 2022, while continuing to phase in a $15.00 minimum wage for smaller employers through further step increases.
[vi] Includes the California localities of Alameda, Berkeley, Emeryville, Fremont, Los Angeles City, Los Angeles County, Malibu, Milpitas, Pasadena, San Francisco, and Santa Monica, as well as the District of Columbia, which have already reached or surpassed a $15 minimum wage, and are expected to raise their wage floors further based on inflation. This figure also includes Chicago, IL, Montgomery County, MD, and the Minnesota cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, which in 2022 will have lower minimum wages for certain employers.
. Yannet Lathrop, T. William Lester and Matthew Wilson, Quantifying the Impact of the Fight for $15: $150 Billion in Raises for 26 Million Workers, With $76 Billion Going to Workers of Color, National Employment Law Project, July 2021, https://www.nelp.org/publication/quantifying-the-impact-of-the-fight-for-15-150-billion-in-raises-for-26-million-workers-with-76-billion-going-to-workers-of-color/.
. See Celine McNicholas and Margaret Poydock, Who are Essential Workers? A Comprehensive Look at their Wages, Demographics, and Unionization Rates, Economic Policy Institute, May 19, 2020, https://www.epi.org/blog/who-are-essential-workers-a-comprehensive-look-at-their-wages-demographics-and-unionization-rates/; Molly Kinder and Laura Stateler, Essential Workers Comprise About Half of All Workers in Low-Paid Occupations. They Deserve a $15 Minimum Wage, Brookings, February 5, 2021, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2021/02/05/essential-workers-deserve-minimum-wage-increase/; and Xavier de Souza Briggs and Russell Jackson, How a $15 Minimum Wage Could Help Restaurants and Other Hard-Hit Small Businesses, Brookings, February 22, 2021, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2021/02/22/how-a-15-minimum-wage-could-help-restaurants-and-other-hard-hit-small-businesses/.
. Elise Gould and Melat Kassa, “Low-wage, low-hours workers were hit hardest in the COVID-19 recession,” The State of Working America 2020, Economic Policy Institute, May 20, 2021, https://www.epi.org/publication/swa-2020-employment-report/.
. Compare April 2020 and July 2021 JOLTS (Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey) figures, for example, which show a nearly 227 percent increase in quits in the food and accommodations industry—from a low of 225,000 in April 2020, to 735,000 in July 2021. See Bureau of Labor Statistics, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release, September 9, 2020, https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_09092020.htm, and October 12, 2021, https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_10122021.htm.
. See Andrew Chamberlain, Restaurant Workers Explore Careers in New Industries During COVID-19, Glassdoor, May 27, 2020, https://www.glassdoor.com/research/restaurant-server-new-jobs/; Peter Romeo, “Brace Yourself for a Mass Exodus of Employees,” Restaurant Business, October 7, 2021, https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/workforce/brace-yourself-mass-exodus-employees; and Lisa Jennings, Four Reasons Workers are Staying Away from the Restaurant Industry and What You Can Do About It, Nation’s Restaurant News, August 23, 2021, https://www.nrn.com/workforce/four-reasons-workers-are-staying-away-restaurant-industry-and-what-you-can-do-about-it.
. One Fair wage, It’s a Wage Shortage, Not a Worker Shortage, May 2021, https://onefairwage.site/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/OFW_WageShortage_F.pdf.
. Luis Feliz Leon and Maximillian Alvarez, “Viewpoint: Beneath Striketober Fanfare, The Lower Frequencies of Class Struggle,” Labor Notes, October 29, 2021, https://labornotes.org/2021/10/viewpoint-beneath-striketober-fanfare-lower-frequencies-class-struggle.
. Christopher Rugaber, “$15 Wage Becoming a Norm as Employers Struggle to Fill Jobs,” Associated Press, July 27, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/business-health-coronavirus-pandemic-minimum-wage-940a6a7530d734242c6f384b751b8033.
. Yannet Lathrop, T. William Lester and Matthew Wilson, op. cit.
. Christine Tamir, The Growing Diversity of Black America, Pew Research Center, March 25, 2021, https://www.pewresearch.org/socialtrends/2021/03/25/the-growing-diversity-of-black-america/.
. Roger Moore, Poverty Statistics for Southern States, The Southern Legislative Conference, September 2018, https://www.slcatlanta.org/research/index.php?pub=580.
. Olugbenga Ajilore, 3 Ways to Improve the Outcomes for African Americans in the Rural South, Center for American Progress, August 6, 2019, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/reports/2019/08/06/470913/3-ways-improve-outcomes-african-americans-rural-south/.
. Congress.gov. “Text – S.53 – 117th Congress (2021-2022): Raise the Wage Act of 2021.” January 26, 2021. https://www.congress.gov/bill/117thcongress/senate-bill/53/text.
. Industrial Commission of Arizona, Labor Department – Minimum Wage, https://www.azica.gov/labor-minimum-wage-main-page (accessed December 15, 2021).
. For current and new minimum wage, see Delaware Department of Labor, Wage & Hour Announcement [poster], https://laborfiles.delaware.gov/main/dia/olle/Minimum%20Wage%20Announcement.pdf. For tipped wage, see Delaware Department of Labor, Minimum Wage, https://labor.delaware.gov/divisions/industrial-affairs/labor-law/minimum-wage/. Both accessed December 15, 2021.
. Illinois Department of Labor, Hourly Minimum Wage Rates by Year, https://www2.illinois.gov/idol/Laws-Rules/FLS/Pages/minimum-wage-rates-by-year.aspx (accessed December 15, 2021).
. Maine Department of Labor, New Minimum Wage Increases, https://www.maine.gov/labor/labor_laws/minimum_wage_faq.html (accessed December 15, 2021).
. Maryland Department of Labor, Maryland Minimum Wage and Overtime Law – Employment Standards Services (ESS), https://www.dllr.state.md.us/labor/wages/wagehrfacts.shtml (accessed December 15, 2021).
. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Massachusetts Law about Minimum Wage, https://www.mass.gov/info-details/massachusetts-law-about-minimum-wage#massachusetts-laws- (updated April 20, 2021).
. Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Opportunity, Wage and Hour Division, General Requirements – Minimum Wage and Overtime [poster], https://www.michigan.gov/documents/cis/MWPosting.Optional_9_25_06_single_page_173925_7.pdf (accessed December 15, 2021).
. New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, Wage and Hour Law Abstract [poster], https://www.nj.gov/labor/wageandhour/assets/PDFs/Employer%20Poster%20Packet/MW-220_1-21.pdf (accessed December 15, 2021).
. New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions, Minimum Wage Information, https://www.dws.state.nm.us/Minimum-Wage-Information (accessed December 15, 2021).
. R.I. Gen. Laws § 28-12-3, http://webserver.rilin.state.ri.us/Statutes/TITLE28/28-12/28-12-3.HTM.
. Vermont Department of Labor, Wage and Hour, https://labor.vermont.gov/rights-and-wages/wage-and-hour (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Virginia Department of Labor and Industry, Labor & Employment Law, FAQs – Virginia Minimum Wage Law, https://www.doli.virginia.gov/labor-law/virginia-minimum-wage-law/ (accessed December 16, 2021). See “What is the Virginia Minimum Wage?” for the current minimum wage rate, and “When is the Next Scheduled Minimum Wage Increase in Virginia?” for the new minimum wage rate.
. Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, Minimum Wage, https://lni.wa.gov/workers-rights/wages/minimum-wage/ (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of Belmont, California, Belmont Minimum Wage Ordinance, https://www.belmont.gov/our-city/frequently-asked-questions/mmwage. For current (2021) rate, see ordinance No. 2017-1123, https://www.belmont.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/21129/637728374664430000. Both accessed December 16, 2021.
. Burlingame, California, Local Minimum Wage Ordinance, https://www.burlingame.org/departments/economic_development/minimum_wage_information.php (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of Cupertino, California, Cupertino Wage Watch, https://www.cupertino.org/our-city/city-news/cupertino-minimum-wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of East Palo Alto, California, Local Minimum Wage, https://www.ci.east-palo-alto.ca.us/econdev/page/local-minimum-wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of El Cerrito, California, The El Cerrito Minimum Wage is Different than the California Minimum Wage, http://www.el-cerrito.org/940/Minimum-Wage-Ordinance (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Hayward, California, Local Minimum Wage, https://www.hayward-ca.gov/your-government/programs/local-minimum-wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of Menlo Park, California, Local Minimum Wage Ordinance, https://beta.menlopark.org/Government/Departments/Community-Development/Economic-development/Local-minimum-wage-ordinance (accessed December 16, 2021). For 2021 minimum wage information, see https://web.archive.org/web/20210120174552/https://www.menlopark.org/1582/Local-minimum-wage-ordinance.
. City of Mountain View, California, Mountain View Minimum Wage Ordinance, https://www.mountainview.gov/depts/comdev/economicdev/city_minimum_wage.asp (updated December 10, 2021).
. City of Novato, California, Novato Minimum Wage, https://www.novato.org/business/https://www.cityofpalonovato-minimum-wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. For 2021 and 2022 minimum wage rates, see relevant posters at City of Oakland, California, Measure FF and Measure Z Posters for Employers, https://www.oaklandca.gov/documents/oaklands-minimum-wage-posters (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of Palo Alto, California, Minimum Wage, https://www.cityofpaloalto.org/Business/Business-Resources/Minimum-Wage (updated October 25, 2021).
. Redwood City, California, Local Minimum Wage, https://www.redwoodcity.org/departments/city-manager/city-manager-s-initiatives/proposed-local-minimum-wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of Richmond, California, Richmond’s Minimum Wage Ordinance, http://www.ci.richmond.ca.us/2615/Minimum-Wage-Ordinance (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of San Carlos, California, Minimum Wage, https://www.cityofsancarlos.org/business/minimum-wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of San Jose, California, Minimum Wage Ordinance, https://www.sanjoseca.gov/your-government/departments-offices/public-works/labor-compliance/minimum-wage-ordinance (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of Santa Clara, California, Minimum Wage Ordinance, https://www.santaclaraca.gov/business-development/business-services/minimum-wage-ordinance (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of South San Francisco, California, Local Minimum Wage, https://www.ssf.net/departments/city-manager/local-minimum-wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Sunnyvale, California, Minimum Wage, https://sunnyvale.ca.gov/business/doingbusiness/wage.htm (updated November 29, 2021).
. Denver, Colorado, Denver Proposed Citywide Minimum Wage – UPDATED 11.18.2019 [fact sheet], https://www.denvergov.org/content/dam/denvergov/Portals/728/documents/minimum-wage/Denver_Citywide_Minimum_Wage_UPDATED_11.18.201.pdf (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Rockland, Maine, Local Minimum Wage Ordinance, https://rocklandmaine.gov/clerks-office/local-minimum-wage-ordinance/ (accessed December 16, 2021). Applies to employers with more than 25 employees.
. For 2022 minimum wage rate, see City of SeaTac, Washington, City Of SeaTac Announces 2022 Minimum Wage Adjustments, November 4, 2021 (updated), https://www.seatacwa.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/31828/637716282182900000. For 2021 rate, see City of SeaTac, Washington, “City of SeaTac Announces 2021 Minimum Wage Adjustments,” City Of SeaTac Blog, October 9, 2020, https://cityofseatac.wordpress.com/2020/10/09/city-of-seatac-announces-2021-minimum-wage-adjustments/.
. Seattle, Washington, Office of Labor Standards, Minimum Wage, http://www.seattle.gov/laborstandards/ordinances/minimum-wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry, Minimum Wage in Minnesota, http://www.dli.mn.gov/business/employment-practices/minimum-wage-minnesota (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Montana Department of Labor and Industry, State Minimum Wage, https://erd.dli.mt.gov/labor-standards/wage-and-hour-payment-act/state-minimum-wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. For 2022 minimum wage rates, see Ohio Department of Commerce, 2022 Minimum Wage [poster], https://www.com.ohio.gov/documents/dico_2022MinimumWageposter.pdf. For 2021 minimum wage rates, see 2021 Minimum Wage [poster], https://www.com.ohio.gov/documents/dico_2021MinimumWageposter.pdf. Both accessed December 16, 2021.
. South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation, Employment Laws: South Dakota Minimum Wage, https://dlr.sd.gov/employment_laws/minimum_wage.aspx (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Under city law, employers may pay $1.00 less if they provide health or childcare benefits. This lower rate ($10.50), however, would fall below the state minimum wage rate for 2022 ($11.50), and is therefore superseded by the latter. For current (2021) and new (2022) standard minimum wage rates, see state minimum wage rates at New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions, Minimum Wage Information, https://www.dws.state.nm.us/Minimum-Wage-Information. For current and new tipped wage rates, see City of Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque Minimum Wage Information, https://www.cabq.gov/legal/albuquerque-minimum-wage-information. Both accessed December 16, 2021.
. For current (2021) and new (2022) standard minimum wage rates, see state minimum wage rates at New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions, Minimum Wage Information, https://www.dws.state.nm.us/Minimum-Wage-Information. For current and new tipped wage rates, see City of Las Cruces, New Mexico, Minimum Wage 2022 [news bulletin], https://www.las-cruces.org/CivicAlerts.aspx?AID=7414. Both accessed December 16, 2021.
. For current (2021) and new (2022) standard minimum wage rates, see Connecticut Department of Labor, State of Connecticut – Minimum Wage Information, https://www1.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi/ctminimumwage.asp. For current and new tipped wage rates, see State of Connecticut, Minimum Fair Wage Rates for Persons Employed in the Restaurant and Hotel Restaurant Occupations [poster], https://www.ctdol.state.ct.us/wgwkstnd/DOL-79.pdf. Both accessed December 16, 2021.
. For current minimum wage rate, see Florida Department of Economic Opportunity, Florida’s Minimum Wage, updated September 24, 2021, https://floridajobs.org/docs/default-source/business-growth-and-partnerships/for-employers/posters-and-required-notices/2021-minimum-wage/september-2021/florida-minimum-wage-september-2021-announcement.pdf?sfvrsn=c12151b0_4 (accessed December 16, 2021). This document also states that each year after September 30, 2021, the state minimum wage will increase by $1.00 until it reaches $15.00 in 2026; and that the tip credit in the state is $3.02. This information was used to determine standard and tipped minimum wages for Florida in 2022.
. Nevada Department of Business and Industry, Office of the Labor Commissioner, State of Nevada Minimum Wage 2021 Annual Bulletin, April 1, 2021, https://labor.nv.gov/uploadedFiles/labornvgov/content/Employer/2021%20Minimum%20Wage%20Bulletin%2003.24.2021.pdf (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Oregon Bureau of Labor and Industries, Minimum Wage Increase Schedule, https://www.oregon.gov/boli/workers/Pages/minimum-wage-schedule.aspx (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Ballotpedia, Tucson, Arizona, Proposition 206, Minimum Wage Initiative (November 2021), https://ballotpedia.org/Tucson,_Arizona,_Proposition_206,_Minimum_Wage_Initiative_(November_2021) (accessed December 16, 2021). For tipped wage information, see https://tucsonfightfor15.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/02.27.2021-Tucson-Min-Wage-Ordinance-14-inch-format-II.pdf.
. Alameda, California, Minimum Wage, https://www.alamedaca.gov/Departments/Community-Development/Minimum-Wage (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Emeryville, California, Minimum Wage Ordinance, https://www.ci.emeryville.ca.us/1024/Minimum-Wage-Ordinance (accessed December 16, 2021). The 2022 minimum wage rate is not currently available, but will likely be posted on that same webpage.
. Los Angeles, California, Raise the Wage LA, https://wagesla.lacity.org/. For information on annual adjustments starting July 1, 2022, see Ordinance No. 184320, https://wagesla.lacity.org/sites/g/files/wph1941/files/2021-08/Los%20Angeles%20Minimum%20Wage%20Ordinance%20184320.pdf. Both accessed December 16, 2021.
. County of Los Angeles, California, County of Los Angeles Minimum Wage Ordinance [poster], http://file.lacounty.gov/SDSInter/dca/245570_FinalMinimumWageOrdinancePosterEnglishStandardSize8.5×14.pdf (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of Milpitas, California, Minimum Wage, http://www.ci.milpitas.ca.gov/milpitas/departments/minimum-wage/. For information on annual adjustments, see Ordinance No. 292, https://www.ci.milpitas.ca.gov/_pdfs/minwageOrdinance292.pdf. Both accessed December 16, 2021.
. Pasadena, California, Planning and Community Development Department, Pasadena’s Minimum Wage [fact sheet], https://www.cityofpasadena.net/planning/wp-content/uploads/sites/30/Minimum-Wage-Fact-Sheet.pdf?v=1639697158988 (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City and County of San Francisco, Office of Labor Standards Enforcement, Minimum Wage Ordinance, https://sfgov.org/olse/minimum-wage-ordinance-mwo. For information on annual adjustments, see ordinance, https://codelibrary.amlegal.com/codes/san_francisco/latest/sf_admin/0-0-0-8543. Both accessed December 16, 2021.
. See endnote 58.
. District of Columbia, Department of Employment Services, District of Columbia Minimum Wage Poster, https://does.dc.gov/sites/default/files/dc/sites/does/publication/attachments/Minimum%20Wage%20Poster%202021.pdf (accessed December 16, 2021).
. City of Chicago, Illinois, Chicago Minimum Wage and Paid Sick Leave Ordinance, https://codelibrary.amlegal.com/codes/chicago/latest/chicago_il/0-0-0-2639765#JD_Ch.6-105 (accessed December 16, 2021).
. Cook County, Illinois, Minimum Wage Ordinance and Regulations, https://www.cookcountyil.gov/service/minimum-wage-ordinance-and-regulations (accessed December 16, 2021). Minimum wage rates applies to Cook County municipalities that opted into the county wage, including Western Springs and Wilmette Village.
. Business for a Fair Minimum Wage (personal communication, December 8 and 16, 2021).
. Montgomery County, Maryland, Minimum Wage Required Under Transition Provisions of Enacted Bill 28.18, https://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/humanrights/Resources/Files/Minimum_Wage_Transition_Table.pdf. For tipped wage rate, see Maryland Department of Labor, Minimum Wage and Overtime Law, Montgomery County [poster], https://www.dllr.state.md.us/labor/wages/minimumwagelawmont.pdf. Both accessed December 16, 2021.
. Saint Paul, Minnesota, Minimum Wage, https://www.stpaul.gov/departments/human-rights-equal-economic-opportunity/labor-standards-enforcement-and-education-0 (accessed December 16, 2021).